Every day, we come across lots of electronic devices such as computers, laptops, washing machines, loudspeakers, pen drives, etc. These devices are examples of electronic devices. But, what do electronics mean? And how do these devices help in making our lives easier?
In this article, we shall understand the definition of electronics, electronic devices, examples of electronic devices, and learn more about accelerometers, transistors, and transducers.
What is Electronics?
The word electronics is derived from electron mechanics which means the study of the behaviour of an electron when it is under different electric fields.
Electronics is defined as the branch of Physics in which the flow of electrons either in a vacuum or in a semiconductor is studied.
What is an Electronic Device?
An electronic device is defined as the device which controls the flow of electrons. These devices are considered the main building blocks in electronic circuits.
What are the Branches of Electronics?
We know that electronics is one of the branches of Physics. However, electronics can also be classified into the following categories or branches:
- Digital electronics
- Analog electronics
- Integrated circuit and semiconductor device
What is Accelerometer?
An accelerometer is defined as an electromechanical device that is used for measuring acceleration forces. The accelerometer is commonly used in smartphones and other mobile technologies to identify the orientation of objects that are present in the sky. The device is designed on the basis of axis motion sensing.
Working of Accelerometer
The circuit used in an accelerometer is simple and two of them are given below:
- Piezoelectric effect
This is the most commonly used form in which microscopic crystals are used. These crystals experience stress due to an accelerated force. The stress is then converted into a voltage which is translated into velocity and orientation.
- Capacitance sensor
In the capacitance sensor, the change in capacitance between the microstructures is sensed. As the accelerative force moves one of the microstructures, the change in the capacitance is sensed and this change is translated into voltage.
Uses of Accelerometer
- It is used in the automotive industry for the detection of the crash and airbag development.
- It is also used in the defence and aerospace industry for navigation and missile guidance.
What is a Transistor?
A transistor is defined as an electronic device that is used for the amplification of electrical signals.
A transistor consists of two PN diodes and has three terminals: emitter, base, and collector.
Types of Transistor
The transistor is divided into two:
- BJT (Bipolar junction transistor)
- PNP transistor
- NPN transistor
- FET (Field effect transistor)
- JFET (Junction-gate field-effect transistor)
- MOSFET (Metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor)
Uses of Transistor
- It is used for amplification and switching.
- FET is used as voltage-controlled devices.
- MOSFETs which are dual-gate are used in RF amplifiers and mixers.
What is a Transducer?
A transducer is defined as an electronic device that converts energy from one form to another. This process of conversion is known as transduction. A transducer can be classified into two types:
- Input transducer
- Output transducer
A transducer consists of two important parts:
- Sensing element
This part of a transducer responds to the physical sensation, and it is dependent on the physical phenomenon.
- Transduction element
This part of a transducer is used for the conversion of the output sensing element into an electrical signal. The transduction element is also known as the secondary transducer.
Uses of Transducer
- It is used for measuring the load on the engines.
- It is used in a speaker for the conversion of electrical signals into acoustic sound.
- It is also used in an ultrasound machine.